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There is no way to prevent pests and diseases from entering a garden. A gardener must take measures against them if he is to get the full benefits of the work, and money, which he has put into his garden.

Spraying with pesticide should only be used as a last resort when all other methods (e.g.: hand picking and water jet.) have failed and the pests are doing intolerable damage to the plants. In some cases, it is only possible to achieve control by using a chemical spray.

Chemical Sprays basically kill pests in one of three ways and an understanding of the mode of action is an important facet of effective control and also ensures that the correct spray is chosen for the job provided the feeding habits of the pest are understood.

Pests primarily feed on plants by either chewing the parts or sucking the sap. The major pests can be split into two groups depending on how they feed.

Sucking
Chewing
Aphids
Borers
Bugs
Caterpillars and grubs
Cuckoo spit
Earwigs
Galls
Leaf-eating beetles
Hoppers
Grasshoppers
Jassids
Millipedes
Lerps
Sawflies
Mealy bugs
Slugs and snails
Thrips
Thrips

Spraying Rules:

1. Choose the safest and most effective pesticide for the job.

2. Spray only the affected plants and if there is excess spray do not apply it to other plants at random. Such random spraying could easily result in the destruction of beneficial insects and an upsurge in the levels of hitherto insignificant pests.

3. Spray thoroughly to wet the pests, stems, buds and the underside as well as tops of leaves, without excessive run-off or spray drips to ground.

4. Avoid spraying on windy days, this is dangerous and inefficient because most of the spray destined for a particular plant will be blown elsewhere.

5. Spray in early morning or late evening, minimum hazard to bees. Spraying should not be carried out in very hot weather. At temperatures above 31C.

6. Do make sure soils are moist when sprayings or fertilizing. If necessary, water the plants to be sprayed beforehand. This is important because plants dehydrate very fast after the spray. Do make sure water regularly after spraying so as to avoid soil very dry and plants therefore under water stress.

7. If rain is predicated, delay spraying until another occasion.

8. Wash immediately after use. Do not eat, drink or smoke while handling pesticides.

9. Some insecticides or fungicides damage plants even when applied at the right time and using correct procedures. If used too frequently, arsenic may build up to toxic levels in the soil that can distort or even kill some plants. This is termed "Phytotoxicity".

10. Spray only the plants are suffering from pest or disease attack. Don't spread it all around the garden.

11. Make sure chemical are tightly closed and store out of reach of children, preferably on a high shelf or in a locked cupboard.

12. Always read the label before using any chemical. Pay particular attention to safety directions and first aid. Follow them, you will not go wrong.
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Grasshopper

Sawfly

Earwig
Miscellaneous
Chewing Insect -
A Caterpillar